Animal Physiology Core



The mission of the Animal Physiology Core (APC) is to assist investigators in the metabolic characterization of mice and rats, including the in vivo assessment of glucose and fatty acid metabolism, insulin sensitivity and energy homeostasis. Through collaborative efforts and close interactions with the other Cores of the ES-DRC, the effects of defined pharmacological, dietary, environmental and genetic alterations are thoroughly characterized for their effects on glucose homeostasis, insulin action, and metabolism. The role of integrative signaling networks among relevant tissues, such as the CNS, liver, GI tissue, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue related to glucose homeostasis can be sharply delineated by thorough and well-defined experimentation in rodent models. Due to the establishment of close ties among the various Cores of the ES-DRC, opportunities to explore new rodent models of diabetes are greeted with enthusiasm by the collaborators of the APC. This highly successful Core encompasses a major effort in the ES-DRC and also expands these services to other ES-DRC affiliated scientists beyond Einstein and Mount Sinai. The broad expertise of the APC staff allows biomedical investigators a wide range of specialized, high quality methodologies, tools and, importantly, interpretation of the data generated relevant to understanding the behavior and physiology mediating the relationships among diabetes, nutrient sensing and obesity in rodents.


  • To offer advice and instruction to students, postdoctoral fellows, investigators and technical staff in the design and performance of physiologic approaches and techniques necessary to evaluate the control of glucose homeostasis and insulin action in rodents.
  • To make available to investigators specialized measurements of whole body and tissue-specific glucose metabolism and insulin action in rodent models including insulin, pancreatic and hyperglycemic clamps and spontaneous glucose monitoring.
  • To provide specialized gastrointestinal, neurosurgical and histological models for the study of insulin sensitivity, energy balance, and glucose and fatty acid metabolism, including gastric bypass and adipose and hepatic tissue denervation, imaging and photo-stimulation.
  • To provide analysis of whole body carbohydrate/fatty acid oxidation, energy expenditure, thermogenesis, food intake, and locomotor activity using specialized metabolic (indirect calorimetry) rodent cages.
  • To provide assessment of the effects of diet, exercise, light/dark cycle and environmental temperature on glucose homeostasis, metabolism, and shivering via electromyography.
  • To make available to investigators specialized measurements of rodent adipose tissue distribution using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and microCT.
  • To assist investigators in the interpretation of data and to design further experimental approaches to reveal the molecular and physiologic bases of metabolically relevant rodent phenotypes.
  • To facilitate and integrate the functional assessments provided by the APC with assays provided by other ES-DRC Biomedical Cores.

Services Provided

The services of this Core are available to investigators new to diabetes research, as well as to investigators working on diabetes-related projects that can be enriched and extended by the use of the expertise and facilities of this Core.

  • In vivo assessment of insulin sensitivity and action, energy balance, and exercise. These assessments are augmented by new surgical procedures permitting selective targeting of brain and peripheral nervous system and intestinal sites, as outlined in the Core Development section.
  • Evaluation of environmental interactions in various genetically modified rodent models as a function of diet, exercise, thermoneutrality, and circadian rhythms.
  • Measurement of body fat composition and distribution, and CNS energy and glucose utilization using a variety of non-invasive imaging modalities.

Fee Schedule

APC Fee Structure
Type of APC Service ES-DRC Member Rate NON ES-DRC Rate
Calorimeter $112.50 $225
Calorimetry analysis $30 $60
Clamp surgery $100 $200
Food reward/ week $50 $100
Clamp assay:    
With radioisotope $200 ($350 w/ C14) $400 ($500 w/ C14)
Clamp data analysis $30 $60
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test $40 $80
Intraperitoneal Glucose Tolerance Test $40 $80
Intraperitoneal Insulin Tolerance Test $40 $80
Body Composition $10 $20
Micro CT scan $100 $200
Brain cannulation / injection protocols $40 $80
Gastric bypass $150 $300
Exercise session (includes analysis for wheel running) $50 $100
Gut neural denervation (include afferent/efferent, branch vagotomies/splanchnicectomy) $100-$250 $200-$450
EMG (electromyography) electrode implantation $100/animal $200/animal
Electromyography $100/week $200/week
Continuous glucose probe implantation $100/animal $200/animal
Continuous glucose monitoring $150/week $300/week
Continuous temperature probe implantation $50/animal $100 implantation
Continuous temperature probe monitoring $100 /week $200 monitoring

Hours: 9:00 AM - 5:00 PM
Locations: Golding 501
Phone: Licheng Wu, 718.430.2348