Medical Scientist

The Einstein Journal of Biology and Medicine

For Authors


    Original Articles     

    Brief Communications    


    Brief Reviews 

    Graphical Reviews 

    Case Reports 


    Innovative Medical/Graduate Education   

    Medicine and Ethics  

    Historical Perspectives/Reviews   

    Policy and Reform  


    Book Reviews    


    Humor and Poetry  



    Disclosure of Competing Interests 

    Publication Agreements 

    Funding and Sponsorship 

    Prior Publication 

    Copyright Transfer 

    Permission to Reprint 

    Informed Consent 

    Use of Human and Animal Subjects   

    Naming Conventions and Registries 







    Required Sections 

    Title Page 


    Study Methods 

    Data Analysis 










    Submissions System 

    Manuscript Review 

    Statistical Review 

    Manuscript Editing  



    Policy for Figures     








Manuscript Categories

Original Articles describe significant clinical or basic science research. Manuscripts should contain a structured abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections. Original Articles should not exceed 6000 words and 8 figures or tables (total). All manuscripts will undergo peer review.

Brief Communications describe clinical or basic science research and should not exceed 3000 words. Manuscripts should contain a structured abstract, an introduction, methods, results, and a discussion section. We recommend no more than 4 figures or tables (total). Manuscripts describing interesting negative results will be accepted for this section. All manuscripts will undergo peer review.

Reviews are accepted on both biomedical and clinical topics. Reviews may address a variety of subjects that may be of interest to researchers or clinicians. A structured abstract is required for a systematic review or meta-analysis. Non-systematic reviews should include an unstructured abstract. Reviews should not exceed 6000 words, 8 figures or tables (total), and 100 references. All manuscripts will undergo peer review.

Brief Reviews will be accepted on both biomedical and clinical topics. Brief reviews should contain an unstructured abstract. Brief Reviews should not exceed 3000 words, 4 figures or tables (total), and 50 references. All manuscripts will undergo peer review.  

Graphical Reviews Graphical Reviews are visual summaries of biomedical and clinical topics. Graphical reviews should contain an unstructured abstract, should not exceed 2000 words (the content of which serves to describe the visual summary), a maximum of 2 figures or tables (total), and 25 references. All manuscripts will undergo peer review.

Case Reports describe an interesting clinical case. Case Reports should include a background section, a presentation of the case, all relevant imaging and laboratory data, a discussion of the findings in the context of current literature, and a conclusion. An unstructured abstract of less than 150 words should be included. Case Reports should not exceed 3000 words and 4 figures and tables (total). All manuscripts will undergo peer review.

Commentary should offer an insightful perspective on a topic of interest in medicine or biomedical science. Commentaries will be accepted on a broad range of topics and will be subject to peer review as appropriate. Commentaries should not exceed 2000 words and 2 figures and tables (total). No abstract is required.

Innovative Medical or Graduate Education articles describe advances in medical and graduate education. Manuscripts should not exceed 3000 words and 4 figures and tables (total). A structured abstract is required for research based reports and an unstructured abstract for general discussions. Manuscripts will be subject to peer review as appropriate.

Policy and Reform are articles discussing health care policy. Manuscripts should not exceed 6000 words and 4 figures and tables (total). Manuscripts will be subject to peer review as appropriate.

Medicine and Ethics are articles discussing ethical debates and themes in medicine or biomedical science. Manuscripts should not exceed 6000 words and 4 figures and tables (total). An unstructured abstract is required. Manuscripts will be subject to peer review.

Historical Perspectives/Reviews describe interesting events, persons, and discoveries in medical and biomedical history. Manuscripts should not exceed 6000 words and 4 figures and tables (total). An unstructured abstract is required. Manuscripts will be subject to peer review.

Reflections are essays providing an narrative perspective on medical or biomedical science, patient encounters, or any of a wide range of experiences. On the Wards are a subset section that describe the perspectives of medical students, residents, and attending physicians in medical practice. In the Lab are a subset section that describe the perspectives of graduate students and researchers in basic science. Essays should not exceed 2000 words. No abstract is required.

Book Reviews are reviews of medical literature. Book Reviews should not exceed 1500 words.  No abstract is required. 

Editorials are solicited by the Editorial Board of EJBM. Editorials should not exceed 1500 words. No abstract is required. 

Humor and Poetry selections should not exceed 500 words. Authors interested in submitting art work should consult the journal staff beforehand. Topics must be related to biomedical science or medical practice.

Editorial Policies

Authorship. All persons designated as authors should qualify for authorship. Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. Authorship is based on substantial contributions to conception and design or analysis and interpretation of data as well as drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content. Participation solely in the acquisition of funding or the collection of data does not justify authorship. General supervision of the research group is also not sufficient. Any part of an article critical to its main conclusions must be the responsibility of at least one author. Only those with key responsibility for the material in the article should be listed as authors; others contributing to the work should be recognized in an Acknowledgment. Editors may require authors to justify the assignment of authorship. The corresponding author on the manuscript agrees to take responsibility for maintaining regular communication with the EJBM editorial staff, for notifying all additional authors of reviewer and editor comments and revisions, and of maintain accurate and up to date conflict of interest information for all authors. 

 Disclosure of Competing Interests. A Competing Interests Agreement constitutes submission approval of competing interests. Any commercial or financial involvements within the past year that might present a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article (e.g. including but not limited to institutional or corporate affiliations, paid consultancies, stock ownership or other equity interests, patent ownership, royalties, funds for travel, and interests in patents, instruments, and technologies) must be acknowledged. At the Editor-in-Chief's discretion, this information may be shared with reviewers and included in the published article. 

Publication Agreements. EJBM requires the corresponding and all additional authors to sign authorship, copyright transfer, and disclosure of competing interest agreements. These agreements are electronically signed through our online submissions system. Electronic signing these agreements is required to submit a manuscript. A hard-copy of all agreements may be accessed here. Investigators participating in clinical trials are urged not to sign agreements with pharmaceutical companies preventing publication of positive and negative results or from collaborating with other investigators to pool data across sites in multi-center trials. Additionally, investigators are urged not to sign agreements that forbid them from publishing without the approval of the sponsor.

Funding and Sponsorship. All financial sponsorships for a manuscript or research must be noted in the Acknowledgements section of the manuscript. 

Prior Publication. Manuscripts are accepted for consideration by EJBM with the understanding that they represent original material, have not been published previously, are not being considered for publication elsewhere, and have been approved by each author as well as by the responsible authorities at the institute where the work has been carried out. Any form of publication other than an abstract, lecture, or thesis constitutes prior publication. This includes components of symposia, proceedings, transactions, books (or chapters), invited articles, or reports of any kind, regardless of differences in readership, as well as electronic databases of a public nature. Authors submitting manuscripts containing data or clinical observations already used in published papers or used in manuscripts that are in press, submitted for publication, or to be submitted shortly, should provide their data and/or clinical observations as well as copies of the manuscript to the Editor-in-Chief. An explanation of the differences between these manuscripts should be included.

Copyright Transfer. EJBM requires copyright transfer to ensure that authors and the Journal are protected from misuse of copyrighted material. A Copyright Transfer Agreement constitutes submission approval of copyright transfer. Authors must obtain letters of permission from publishers for the use, reproduction, publication, adaptation, display, public performance, republication, and distribution of reproductions in any language and in any format (including print, electronic, and any other media) of extensive quotations (i.e. more than 500 words) or figures that have been previously published or submitted elsewhere, as well as permission to sublicense any or all of the foregoing. 

Permission to Reprint. Publication elsewhere in any language or any format without the consent of the copyright holder is an infringement of the Copyright Transfer Agreement. Permission to reprint material published in EJBM must be secured in writing. Permission requests may incur a fee; nonprofit classroom or library reserve and authors wishing to reprint their own material in noncommercial venues are exempt. 

Informed Consent. Ethical and legal considerations require the protection of patient/subject anonymity. Identifying information such as names, initials, hospital numbers, dates, first or last names, and initials must be avoided in written text, photographs, or pedigree figures. Also, authors should disguise identifying information when discussing characteristics and personal history. If informed consent is not granted, as described below, then patient or subject anonymity must be absolutely maintained.

Manuscripts reporting results of experimental investigation with human subjects must include a statement of informed consent. Subjects must understand the purpose of the research being conducted, potential alternatives to the research study, the procedures that will be performed, as well as the risks involved in the study's procedures. In the case of children, authors are asked to include information about whether the child's assent was obtained. Authors must supply the journal with a statement, signed by all authors, indicating that appropriate archiving of all patient or subject written consent forms was completed at the research site. All information that is nonessential to the patient or subject presentation should be omitted from the final manuscript figures or text.

Use of Human and Animal Subjects. All research involving human subjects must have been approved by the authors’ institutional review board or an equivalent body, as well as comply with all applicable federal or international legal requirements. All research must adhere with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975 (subject to the 2008 revision). In all instances that authors believe their research to not be in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration, an explanation must be provided in detail to EJBM.  The name of that committee or board whose approval was obtained for the research must be included in the manuscript. Manuscripts describing work on animals must conform to the following principles approved by the United States Public Health Service Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy on the Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: 1) only animals lawfully acquired are used, and their retention and use will be in every case in strict compliance with state and local laws and regulations; 2) animals in the laboratory must receive every consideration for their bodily comfort, they must be kindly treated, properly fed, and their surroundings kept in a sanitary condition; 3) appropriate anesthetics must be used to eliminate pain during operative procedures; and 4) the postoperative care of animals will be such as to minimize discomfort and pain, and in any case will be equivalent to accepted practices in schools of Veterinary Medicine.  

Naming Conventions and Registries. All genes and other genomic information should follow the nomenclature employed by the US National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) or the HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee. All genomic data sets must be deposited in a publicly available database, for instance the NCBI’s GenBank, and a complete accession number (and version number if appropriate) must be provided in the Methods section. The origins of all cell lines and plasmids utilized in research must be noted. All clinical trials must be recorded with an appropriate trial registry, such as  

Manuscript Requirements

Format. Files should be submitted as Microsoft Word (.doc or .docx) documents. All four margins in manuscripts should be one (1) inch. Manuscripts should use Times New Roman, 11pt and should be double spaced. 

Required Sections. All manuscripts should be arranged in the following order, with each item beginning a new page: 1) title page, 2) abstract (where applicable), 3) text, 4) references, and 5) tables and/or figures. All pages must be numbered.

Title Page. All manuscripts should include a Title Page. Title pages should include the following information: 

  1. Title: The title should be informative, declarative, and as brief as possible. 
  2. Byline: The name, department, institution, mailing address, academic degrees, and e-mail for each author should be furnished. Authors' full names should be provided. If there are several authors with different affiliations, authors should be matched to their respective departments or institutions by means of numerical superscripts after the authors’ names. If an author has moved since doing the work described, indicate the institution at which the work was done in the primary affiliation listing and use an additional superscript to indicate the present address.
  3. Corresponding Author: Include a full mailing address and e-mail address for the author who is to serve as the corresponding author.
  4. Previous Presentation: If the paper was presented at a meeting, give the name of the meeting, the location, and date.
  5. Conflict of Interest: Any commercial, financial, or other involvements within the past year that might present a conflict of interest in connection with the submitted article (e.g. including but not limited to institutional or corporate affiliations, paid consultancies, stock ownership or other equity interests, patent ownership, royalties, funds for travel, and interests in patents, instruments, and technologies) must be acknowledged. 
  6. Acknowledgments: Collegiate acknowledgments should precede those for grant support. Grant support should include the full name of the granting agency and grant number. This includes, but is not limited to, all federal or private funding used to support authors or the research, all grants to students (research or fellowship grants), and any other potential sources of support or funding. Corporate support of any kind must be acknowledged.
  7. Author Contributions: Information regarding author contributions should be provided, as applicable. Note the authors: responsible for study concept and design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data, drafting of the manuscript, critical revision of the manuscript, statistical analysis, and key administrative, technical, or material support.
  8. Keywords, Word Count, Tables and Figures: Include five words or phrases that summarize the major topics covered by the manuscript. Include the number of words excluding the abstract, tables, figures, references, and online-only material. Include the number of figures and tables.

 Abstract. Structured abstracts should not exceed 300 words and should contain 5 sections: objectives, background, methods, results, and conclusions. Unstructured abstracts should not exceed 200 words, except for Case Report abstracts which should not exceed 100 words. The abstract should clearly state the subject and main conclusions of the manuscript, and it should avoid the use of abbreviations and unfamiliar or new terminology.

Study Methods. A manuscript presenting original data from patient populations should provide a comprehensive description of the nature of the study group, methods for recruitment, measurement, and evaluation techniques (including reliability), and data analysis. At the end of the section describing the subjects it should be clearly stated what type of informed consent was obtained. Studies that require Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval must note which IRB granted approval. Strengths and weaknesses of the study should be presented in the discussion.

Data analysis. Adequate description of statistical analyses should be provided, including the names of the statistical tests and whether tests were one-or two-tailed. Standard deviations, rather than standard errors of the mean, are required. Statistical tests that are not well-known should be referenced. All significant and important nonsignificant results must include the test value, all degrees of freedom, and probability. For example, "The analysis of variance indicated that those who abstained from coffee had significantly higher course grades than those who did not abstain (F = 4.32, df = 3, 17, p < 0.05)." Reviewers will evaluate the appropriateness of the analyses. Abbreviations and symbols. The Einstein Journal of Biology and Medicine distinguishes between standard and non-standard abbreviations. Standard abbreviations for units of measure do not need to be defined. Other abbreviations are considered non-standard and must be spelled out upon first usage. Non-standard abbreviations should be used only for terms mentioned five or more times in the paper. Both standard and non-standard abbreviations should also conform to international standards. Authors should refer to: IUPAC Manual of Symbols and Terminology for Physicochemical Quantities and Units or Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI). 

Drugs. Generic names should be used. Brand names may be inserted in parentheses following the generic name and used thereafter as the major identifier. 

Foonotes. Footnotes for text are not acceptable within the text of articles submitted, except for tables and figures.

References. As of October 2012 EJBM employs the APA 6th edition “Author-Date” citation style. References should be restricted to pertinent material. Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of their citations. The Editors will not revise references. EJBM strongly encourages use of the bibliography program Endnote ( to ensure proper formatting of citations. All references should be listed, without numbers, in alphabetical order at the end of the article. List all authors; do not use "et al." Abbreviations of journal names should conform to the style used by PubMed. Personal communications, unpublished manuscripts, manuscripts submitted but not yet accepted, and similar unpublished items should appear in the reference list as "personal communication," "in preparation," "submitted for publication," accordingly, without mention of a journal. It is the author's responsibility to obtain permission to refer to another individual's unpublished observations. Manuscripts that are actually "in press" may be cited as such in the reference list; the name of the journal or publisher and location must be included. If the author of a document is not identified, begin the reference with the title of the document. If the publication date of a document is not identified, indicate “no date” in place of the date.

Tables. Tables must be self-explanatory, and each table should be provided on a separate page. In addition, table titles labeled with Arabic numerals, legends, and footnotes should be provided on a separate page. Tables that duplicate material contained elsewhere in the manuscript (i.e. in text, figures, or other tables) should not be used. Authors should delete short tables containing data that could be given succinctly in text. EJBM does not publish tabulated data that have been submitted elsewhere or previously published. Nonstandard abbreviations should be used sparingly and must be defined in the legend at the bottom of the table, if not defined earlier in the text. Each vertical column requires a heading. Reference to footnotes should be made by means of lower case letters (a, b, c, etc.). Scales with large or small numbers should use numbers multiplied by powers of 10. 

Figures. All figures should be appended to the end of the document. EJBM encourages the submission of high-quality figures (e.g. photographs, illustrations, charts, and graphs). High resolution images will be required if the manuscript is accepted. Each complete figure (including titles and footnotes) should be understandable without reference to the text. Figures should represent data visually rather than numerically. It is particularly important that nomenclature, abbreviations, and units used in figures agree precisely with those used in the text of the paper. A composite figure carries a single figure number; upper case letters identify the individual parts. Photographs should be cropped to the final intended width. It is preferable for magnifications to be shown by means of a bar on the photograph as well as a number in the legend. Where necessary, the orientation for the illustration should be indicated by an arrow and the word “top.” Scales with large or small numbers should use numbers multiplied by powers of 10. If figures have been previously published, the author must secure written permission from the holder of copyright for republication in the EJBM as well as the right and license to further republish and reproduce in any language, format, or media (including print, electronic, or other media), distribute reproductions, adapt, and display such figures, as well as the right to sublicense any or all of the foregoing. The author should submit a copy of the permission release and credit lines if the manuscript is accepted for publication. 

Submission Process 

Submissions System. Please CLICK HERE for instructions. Please read through all guidelines to ensure your submission is in the proper format. The review process for submissions that are missing required components or that do not comply with the EJBM style specifications may be significantly delayed. All authors are required to submit the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. The form is available here:; please open COI with the latest version of Adobe Reader. 

Manuscript Review. All submitted manuscripts undergo initial quality and technical review by EJBM editorial staff. Manuscripts are evaluated for clear writing, relevant and interesting material, and the nature of presentation of data and research methods. Manuscripts which do not require external review will be internally edited and reviewed by journal staff. The corresponding author will be notified about the acceptability of a manuscript for review or editing within a week from formal submission. Manuscripts are considered formally submitted only when all required information has been provided to the journal. Manuscripts that require external review will be sent to at least two expert reviewers in the field. Authors may suggest reviewers for manuscripts. The journal staff attempts to ensure that all reviews are returned within six to eight weeks. EJBM seeks high quality academic scholarship in which conclusions are firmly supported by the data. Authors are informed of the Editor's decision after the review process is completed. Submissions may be accepted, accepted with revision, or rejected.  Authors who will be away from their offices for a prolonged period of time or whose address changes after manuscript acceptance should inform EJBM

Statistical Review. Statistical review is completed for all manuscripts that contain quantitative data by reviewers with an appropriate statistics background from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine.

Manuscript Editing. Manuscripts are accepted with the understanding that the Editor-in-Chief and the editorial staff have the right to make revisions aimed at greater conciseness, clarity, and conformity with EJBM style. Accepted papers will be edited and sent to the corresponding author for corrections.

Accepted Manuscripts

Policy for Figures. Figures must be submitted separately as high quality .JPEG or .TIFF files with a minimum 300 DPI resolution. It is not possible to print lower resolution images in the journal. Multiple figures for the same article should be prepared as a set (i.e. consistent in style and size across all figures).

Reprints. Small numbers of reprints will be provided without charge to authors; however, if more copies are necessary, please contact EJBM for pricing. Please contact EJBM as soon as your manuscript has been accepted for publication; copies requested after an issue has gone to press may be difficult to acquire.  

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